In Columbia, South Carolina, on 10 November 1860, the state general assembly called for a convention to consider seceding from the Union. Just days before, Republican Abraham Lincoln claimed victory with a platform that, at the very least, opposed expanding slavery into new states. Indeed, two years before, Lincoln predicted that with its current condition untenable, the nation would soon be either all-slave or all-free.
Gathering in Columbia weeks later, on 17 December the assembly voted to secede. With smallpox spreading in Columbia, the assembly reconvened in the state’s port city of Charleston. Secession was ratified on 20 December 1860. Charleston, of course, heard the first gunshots of the War Between the States the following spring.
South Carolina’s capital was the very first place in the world ever called Columbia. In a richly symbolic turn, it was in a place named for the United States that the nation’s tenuous unity met its most organized challenge.
As you may remember from a previous post, secession complicated the South’s relationship to Columbia-as-symbol; South Carolinians banned songs referring to it, but other states maintained their attachment.
I eagerly look forward to visiting Columbia, South Carolina. It’s the most populous political entity bearing the name in question, with a long and fascinating history. Here are two images of it: one depicting the ruins of war, and the other showing the thriving metropolis of today.